Welcome to why18holes.com

Learn how reconsidering golf's 18-hole principle can help struggling golf facilities and catapult the game into the future

It's About Time

Worldwide participation in golf has declined in recent years and countless golf facilities now struggle to make ends meet.

Two main causes have been commonly identified; that a game of golf now takes too long and that it costs too much. Here, golf architect Edwin Roald suggests that golf's current 18-hole principle may no longer be relevant to people's available leisure time.


To summarize, 9 holes is too short and ineffective. Time, space and money does not support 18. Therefore, it's about time we return to golf's age-old but lost tradition, accepting that each course has its own unique number of holes, based entirely on local conditions. This enables struggling golf facilities to appeal to all stakeholders by simply abandoning a handful of holes, depending on their design, at little or no cost. This way, the golfers keep their course, they can play in less time at slightly lowered prices, while more land becomes available for general outdoor life and other forms of development. Everyone wins.


As explained here, restoring golf's lost freedom from today's design constraints can not only break golf's current deadlock.

It can unlock its true potential to entertain and contribute, and ultimately change how people think about golf.

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Deep Roots in Golf's History

Early golf courses and how many holes they had













Today's round of golf is 18 holes because this is how many holes The Old Course in St. Andrews has. In 1764, The Royal and Ancient Golf Club (R&A) decided to reduce the number of holes on the course from 22 to 18. The minutes of this significant meeting, here above, say: The captain and gentlemen golfers present, are of (the) opinion that it would be for the improvement of the links that the four first holes should be converted into two. They therefore have agreed that for the future, they shall be played as two holes, in the same way as presently marked out."

Note the words "for the improvement of the links", indicating that the motive behind the decision was simply to make the course more interesting to play. Can this be applied to your course today?


Minutes reproduced with kind permission from The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews



James II, King of Scots, places a ban on the game of golf, which is reported to have been played first on the Links in St. Andrews in the early 1400’s. Later references to the number of holes on the Links say 22 holes.

First account of golf played in Montrose. The course had as much as 25 holes.



First documented evidence of golf played at Musselburgh. Still 7 holes.



Leith 5 holes. Later adds 2 more.








Montrose 7 holes.

Bruntsfield adds one hole to its five hole course to form a layout of six holes.



Royal Blackheath, England's oldest golf club, extended to seven holes. Was still seven holes in 1893.



Musselburgh adds 8th hole.



Montrose eleven holes.

Prestwick Golf Club established, 12 holes.



The Monifieth Links, now Panmure, adds one hole to form a 10-hole course.


Incidentally, golfers at Lanark play their 6-hole course three times over to form a medal round of 18 holes.




Lanark adds a 7th hole and thus plays medal rounds of 21 holes.

The R&A updates its rules. The title was: Rules for the Game of Golf As it is played by the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews over their Links.


This says: "One round of the links, or eighteen holes, is reckoned a match, unless otherwise stipulated."


As suggested in the title, these rules were to be applied to The Old Course in St. Andrews. Still, others soon followed.

Tournament at Montrose over 25 holes, one round on the course.


Mary, Queen of Scots, is reported to play golf at Musselburgh. 7 holes.


Montrose 14 holes.

“Golf is a wonderful sport enjoyed by millions around the world, providing healthy recreation in relaxing, natural surroundings.  It does, however, have to compete for people’s time with other sports and leisure activities and greater flexibility in the number of holes being played may help more people to participate regularly in golf.  Such an approach to the design of golf courses could address other issues such as the availability of land and the cost of their construction and maintenance.  Edwin Roald makes a strong case for such flexibility and his views are certainly thought provoking and worthy of serious consideration.”

Steve Isaac

Director - Golf Course Management

The R&A

World governing body for golf, outside USA & Mexico

“The why18holes concept is a timely and refreshing idea that advocates a responsive and adaptive approach to golf course design. The idea that the landscape and resources available drive all fundamental design decisions, even how many holes there are, is a strong and compelling statement. We admire and encourage Edwin in his work and efforts to re-think elements of golf design that for so long were taken for granted and in his approach to seeking innovative solutions inspired by age-old values.”

Jonathan Smith, CEO

Golf Environment Organization

Roadmap for Golf

Avoiding a fixed number of holes on golf courses will provide an increased ability for golf to ...

Use areas of various

shapes & sizes.

Available areas, damaged

land or land of low value.

Difficult to get large enough

urban areas for 18 holes.

Better urban location.

More accessible, requiring

less travel time and cost.

Introducing the game

to the youth.

The future.

Golf's long-term health.

More grounds for

community support,

financial incentives,

win-win land-use projects,

collaboration with 3rd,

sector, NGOs etc.

Include other

land-uses and functions.

Mixed land-use projects.

Better public access to new,

diverse, open areas on/and

around golf courses.

Design walkable

courses with less distance

from green to the next tee.

Enjoying and promoting

the health benefits that

golf can bring for all ages.

Reduce golf

cart use.

Less energy


Allow nature to dictate

the design and use

existing infrastructure.

Less earthwork


Better golf holes.

More fun to play.

Reduce footprint.

Work around and

protect environmentally

sensitive areas.

Design problems out,

less engineering.

Lower building cost,

in total and per hole.

Appeal to the customer's

desired playing time.

Maximizing golf's potential

as a meaningful contributor

to society.

Lower greenfees,

in total and per hole.

Better golf for less money.

Avoid compromise

in design.

A flexible number of

holes, preferably

between 9 and 18.

Golf becomes more sustainable, more attractive and more relevant as a public leisure option.

The Author

Edwin Roald is a golf course architect, golf sustainability advisor, writer and a longtime student of golf history. An accredited verifier for the GEO Certified ecolabel.




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